Epoxy Injection of Structures Part 2

February 14, 2017

Infrastructure Repairs Using Epoxy

Epoxy Concrete Injection Epoxy Wood Injection, epoxy crack repair

Epoxy Structural Concrete and Wood Repair / Waterproofing

The following article is written with enough information about resin injection systems to help protect the Owner from the misuse or improper installation of an injection systems.   For more information contact me: Norm Lambert.

This is the second in a series on Infrastructure Repairs Using Epoxy. Part One was Introduction to Epoxy Injection.  If your have not read that yet you may want to go back and read it before you proceed with reading this.

Part 2: Crack Analysis Before Epoxy Injection

As with all repair and rehabilitation of concrete, the initial job analysis is by far the most important step. Epoxy Injection Resin will weld concrete cracks but, of course, will not repair the cause of the cracking.

Analyze each potential injection application to determine the exact cause or causes of the cracking. Correcting the cracking problem can be fairly simple, or may be difficult involving design changes.

Consult a structural engineer when design changes are necessary. Do this before starting the injection. Repairing cracks by Injection is effective after these design changes. Prevent future cracks by fixing the original cause of the cracking, when ever possible.

Parking garages are an example of cracking problem that require a structural engineering analysis.Epoxy.com Epoxy Inection Often inadequate design for expansion/contraction is the cause for parking garage structural cracking. Avoid weld injecting a crack if there are not enough expansion joints. Sometimes flexible overlays such as Epoxy.com System # 495 can be used to overcome this defect. This does not however encapsulate the rebar in a way that will totally stop the premature deterioration of the steel. Often times additional joints are needed, thus the analysis of cracking problems is critical.

Bridge decks and slab on grades can often be repaired with Epoxy.com Product #684LV crack healer and sealer and save some of the cost of doing epoxy injection.

Next in the Injection Series:

Part 3: Setting Epoxy Injection Ports

For more information visit our website at http://www.epoxy.com, email us at info@epoxy.com or call our technical service department at +1 (352) 533-2167.


Fixing Floor Damage with Epoxy

September 6, 2016

Industrial and commercial floors take heavy abuse. The older the flooring the worse shape it is in. Conventional wisdom says that such a breakdown of the floor is inevitable. There are steps you can take to protect your floor before it gets damaged. Once the damage has happened there are steps you can take to permanently repair most damaged floors.

Floor joints, are the source of many industrial flooring problems. The purpose of these joints (in original construction) is to give the concrete a controlled place for the concrete crack as it shrinks. They sometimes are called expansion joints. In theory they will expand when the concrete gets hot.Indoors, where temperature is somewhat stable, most of their function of these joints has ended after 28 days or so of concrete. Concrete does most of it shrinking in the first 28 days.

wheel across empty  joint

A wheel across an empty Joint

The downside of these joints in the concrete is that it gives a place for the concrete to start chipping away. See the highlighted (in blue) corners in the illustration to the right. When wheels pass across the top it hammers the edge in the opposite side of traffic flow. This breaks off tiny pieces of concrete (again drawn in blue as a triangle at the edges of the concrete joint). The bigger the area chipped out earlier, the bigger and faster additional chipping happens. Time goes on and “pot holes”start to form in the concrete joint in direct proportion to the number of times wheels have hit a given spot.This can become a major trip and forklift hazard.

The best way to prevent this concrete damage is to fill the joints with Epoxy.com  – Product #11-100% Solids Flexible Epoxy Joint Filler for Saw Cut Joints. The #11 is semi-flexible so it still allows some joint movement but (unlike caulking) is firm enough to support the hard wheel as it passes over the joint, virtually

wheel across a filled joint

Wheel Supported by #11 as it passes over the joint.

eliminating the pounding and chipping effect on the sides of the joint. See in this diagram how the #11 supports the wheel as it passes over the joint.

For application on flat surfaces Epoxy Joint Filler for Saw-Cut Control Joints Product #11 can be poured or pumped from an Epoxy.com Binary Pumping Systems. In areas where cosmetics are important mask both sides of the substrate before applying the material.

If the areas are bigger you can use Epoxy.com Product #12  blended with silica sand to make a mortar to fill epoxy_joint_repairthe pothole, then re-cut your joint with a concrete saw as shown in the diagram here. The Product #12 can also be mixed with silica sand and used to repair areas in the center of a slab that might have started as a random crack or because of a chemical spill or due to impact damage.

If you need the epoxy mortar to set at a lower temperature and/or faster Epoxy.com Product #10 Epoxy Mortar Resin in fast or cold cure may be the best option.

Here is an outline of getting your flooring ready and some of the types of flooring we can offer you.

I can easily calculate how much material you will need for your floor.  The patching will take a little more effort and some estimation of the geometry of the repairs from you:

  1. Joints
    1. Fill joints with Epoxy.com Product #11 – epoxy.com/11.aspx.If there is spalling at the joint see “pot hole” repair below.
  2. Pot holes
    1. Fill shallow areas with a blend of Epoxy.com Product #12 – epoxy.com/12.aspx -And Epoxy.com Product #71 – www.epoxy.com/71.aspx fumed silica
    2. Fill Deep areas with a blend of Epoxy.com Product #12 and product #82 Mortar Blend Aggregates
  3. Priming
    1. Oil Saturated areas (if any) – Epoxy.com Product #201 – epoxy.com/201.aspx
    2. Areas with moisture vapor transfer issues (if any – see epoxy.com/surfaceprep.aspx ) with Epoxy.com Product #830 – www.epoxy.com/830.aspx
    3. All areas not subject to the items above primed with
      1. Epoxy.com Product #12 – www.epoxy.com/12.aspx or
    4. Epoxy.com Product #899 – www.epoxy.com/899.aspx.
  4. Floor Coating – High Build
    1. High build all purpose epoxy floor coating:  Epoxy.com Product #1 – epoxy.com/1.aspx or
    2. High build mid range chemical resistant epoxy floor coating: Epoxy.com Product #2 – epoxy.com/2.aspx or
    3. High build highly chemically resistant epoxy floor coating: Epoxy.com Product #633 – epoxy.com/633.aspx
  5. Seamless Flooring
    1. Chip Flooring – epoxy.com/chips.aspx or
    2. Solid Colored Standard chemical resistance Flooring
    3. Product #24 Pigmented mortar – www.epoxy.com/24.aspx and silica sand
      1. Top coated with Product #1 – www.epoxy.com/2.aspx  or
    4. For high chemical resistance Epoxy.com Product #2 – epoxy.com/2.aspx
    5. Epoxy Quartz Flooring – www.epoxy.com/15.aspx.
  6. Chemical Resistant Epoxy Flooring
    1. Product #630 and silica sand – www.epoxy.com/630.aspx
    2. Product #633 and silica sand – www.epoxy.com/633.aspx 

Still not sure? Email epoxy.com Technical Support info@epoxy.com  call us at 352-533-2167. We will help you select the right product for your job. We can also help you estimate how much of it you need, and quote you on those quantities.

You can also visit us at www.epoxy.com 24 hours a day 7 days a week.

 


Patching Vinyl Ester Floors With Novolac

July 28, 2016

A customer writes:

“We have a dairy processing and packaging facility that was built circa 1994.  At the time of construction we chose to install a flooring system which was vinyl ester based with fiberglass mat.  The floor has held up quite well in areas where it had a good bond.  The failures we have seen are in areas that covered either an expansion joint or control joint in the concrete.  In these areas the flooring has delaminated from the concrete.  Where possible we have made a clean cut through the flooring to an area where we had a good bond and left the concrete exposed.  Other failure areas are around floor drains.  We have made repairs with quick curing epoxies in the past but these don’t seem to bond well to the existing vinyl ester flooring. 

“Having a manufacturing facility with only one down day limits our ability to make substantive repairs.  During a search for low or no VOC  flooring systems I you folks.”

I have personally made many thousands of square feet of floor repairs that sounds exactly like the issues and conditions that you are describing.

Here is what I did to permanently resolve the issue, at least in the patched areas.

  1. Cut back the edges of the delaminated areas back to a point where the vinyl ester is well attached.
  2. Prep the concrete under the failed area and the edges of the old material – epoxy.com/surfaceprep.aspx.
  3. Prime with Epoxy.com Product #12 – epoxy.com/12.aspx
  4. Install a trowel coat of Epoxy.com Product #630 – epoxy.com/633.aspx and
    1. Epoxy Mortar Blend aggregate #82 Mortar Blend Aggregate
    2. Allow to cure hard to the touch and cool.
  5. Glaze with a neat coat of Epoxy.com Product #633 with optional Anti-skid – http://epoxy.com/non-skid-additive-polycarbonate-aggregate.aspx

Please email your additional questions to norm@epoxy.com or visit http://www.epoxy.com .


Monument Repairs with Epoxy

March 9, 2016

A technician who uses a non-Epoxy.com product to repair tombstones wrote me recently looking for help with problems that he was having. He goes on to say that the epoxy that he uses never fails, but rather the stone fails. When a secondary break occurs, the stone always re-breaks about 2 mm (about ¾ inch) above or below the epoxy joint. The epoxy attached to about 2 mm of the stone and holds well.

He asked me if the epoxy shrinks so much that it will ‘ pull away ‘ from the stone it’s attached to, and in his case, it pulls about 2mm of stone with it.

No I doubt it is epoxy shrinkage causing the problem. High quality epoxy has little or no shrinkage. It would have to be a very poor quality epoxy to be shrinking enough to do that.

The reason his epoxy is not working is that it is too rigid. His existing rigid material has a “high modulus of elasticity”. A material with “high modulus of elasticity” is a material that is stiff and/or rigid. A “low modulus of elasticity” material is semi-flexible, and is not rigid or brittle.

T pieces of the stone structure (in this case a tombstone) and pieces not in touch with the ground tend to get hotter and cooler faster than the larger pieces and pieces with ground contact. This is called “differential timing of the event”. For example the top of a tombstone can be heated and cooled on 5 sides, the top and the 4 sides. The base of the tombstone which is buried in the ground has earth or stone on all of its surfaces. This earth and stone tends to keep the temperature of the base more stable by insulating it and slowing the change in temperature. This works much like the insulation in your house slows temperature changes inside your house.

When an object like a piece of stone is heated it expands (gets bigger). When an object cools it contracts (gets smaller). For example 100 feet of concrete will be 1 inch longer once it is heated 100 degrees F. That is why expansion joints are cut into concrete.

In the case of tombstones all the pieces of the same type of stone have very similar if not identical “coefficient of expansion”. Since the pieces are positioned with potentially different timing of heating and cooling there is a “differential timing of the event” (see above). The result is stress areas you are seeing in the closest weakened plane in the stone near the bond line.

Product #2005 was specifically designed for tombstone (monuments) and/or stone bonding, or repair. Epoxy.com Product #2005 is very strong yet it is has a “low modulus of elasticity” (semi-flexible). The low-modulus of elasticity helps to absorb differential movement (two sections of stone heating and cooling at different times), making it much less likely to cause a stress area in adjacent weakened planes.

Camouflage the bond line rubbing stone dust(ground off the original stone or a similar colored stone) into any exposed epoxy material while the epoxy is still “wet”. That way the dust will stick in the wet epoxy making the epoxy difficult to impossible to see.

Please send your additional question and blog ideas to norm@epoxy.com


What is Most Versatile Epoxy?

August 18, 2015

My company has many different products and systems. I often get asked, “What is the best epoxy?” I need details about the

Clear Chemical Resistant Epoxy #15 over Stained concrete

Clear Chemical Resistant Epoxy #15 over Stained concrete

job to answer that question. The best epoxy is the one that is right for the specific job. That is where our company’s motto “The Right Product for the Right Job” came from. This is the driving force of our company and our technical support department. This has been our driving force for 35 years.

Perhaps the real question is, “What is the most versatile epoxy?” That is an easier question to answer. It is Epoxy.com Product #15 – www.epoxy.com/15.aspx. When I was an epoxy installer I always had Product #15 Clear Chemical Resistant Epoxy Resin on my jobsite.

Advantages

  • Clear Chemical Resistant
  • Can be applied as thin as 5/1000 inch or less and as thick as 1/32 (without Filler) or more
  • Can be applied as an aggregate filled system at a thickness of 12 inches or more.
  • Excellent wetting properties
  • Good temperature resistance
  • Low Viscosity
  • Non-shrink
  • Slower than other clear epoxies to oxidize outdoor in direct sunlight
  • Strong and durable
  • Virtually non-yellowing indoors

Uses

  • Acid Stain Concrete Floor Sealer
  • Base Coving Material for seamless flooring (when mixed with fumed silica and silica sand)
  • Clear coating over most porous materials
  • Chemical resistant primer
  • Chemical resistant mortar when mixed with silica sand
  • Chemical resistant top coating
  • Clear epoxy sealer for concrete
  • Clear epoxy sealer for wood, and other porous materials
  • Counter top coating
  • Epoxy quartz flooring
  • Pothole repair in concrete (when mixed with silica sand)
  • Sealing of stone that has been previously epoxied together (aka epoxy-rock, stone carpet etc.)
  • Surface sealing concrete cracks and joints (when mixed with fumed silica thickener)
  • Use with fiberglass or Kevlar to make strong composite members
  • Waterproof wood joint sealer (when mixed with fumed silica thickener)
  • Wood bonding as neat material or mixed with fumed silica thickener
  • Wood Floor Coating

Product #15 – www.epoxy.com/15.aspx – is a great product to have around for any number of emergency situations. Please address your questions to Epoxy.com Technical Support at 352-533-2167 or email me at norm@epoxy.com.


Waterproofing of Leaking Foundations

May 4, 2015

This is the time of year when the ground thaws and basements leak. If you are one of those building owners, here are some earlier posts that you will find useful.

  1. https://news.epoxy.com/2014/09/04/epoxy-waterproof-block-wall-foundation/
  2. https://news.epoxy.com/2014/09/15/shows-how-to-identify-leaks-that-need-waterproofing-in-basement-walls-and-floors-that-are-made-out-of-poured-concrete-part-2b-will-deal-with-the-actual-repairs-to-poured-concrete-leaks/
  3. https://news.epoxy.com/2014/09/18/epoxy-injection-repairs-of-cracks-in-poured-concrete/

Basement Waterproofing with Epoxy

September 4, 2014

Many homes and businesses experience leaky basements year after year. The worse time is in the spring after winter accumulation of snow. There are a number of prudent things that you can do to improve drainage against your foundation like roof gutters, grading and improvement of drainage. The recommendations here do not replace that conventional wisdom. It is designed to augment and improve upon these conventional methods.

The following article will be 1 of 2. This one deals with Block wall foundations. The next one will deal with poured wall foundations.

Waterproofing Block Wall Foundations with Epoxy

One of the nicest features of most of our epoxies are that they are virtually 100% waterproof. Water simply cannot pass through a good healthy layer of properly applied concrete, block, wood etc. Epoxy also has an incredible bond to concrete, cement, wood and many other construction materials. The bond strength of epoxy to concrete and cement is greater than the tensile strength of the concrete. That means on properly prepared concrete, epoxy cannot be removed without pulling concrete with it. The same is true about wood.

Considerations in Waterproofing with Epoxy

All this gives you the perfect combination to make a block wall watertight. There are limitations however:

  1. In an ideal world the epoxy should be applied on the positive pressure side of the wall, the outside. This way the pressure of the water is pushing it into the wall. That helps to mitigate the likelihood that you get so much pressure on the concrete block that you fracture the block. Typically by the time you know you have a leak you are already backfilled and landscaped so 95% of the time it is not practical to do on the outside of the wall. So you do it on the inside instead.

    Water exerts a pressure of less than ½ psi per foot of water depth and most basement walls are only 8 foot high, so you would typically only see 4 psi. So it is unlikely that you have a pressure greater than the tensile strength of the block. So doing it on the inside is typically the only economical alternative.

  2. The Product #1W Epoxy is much more flexible than the concrete block and mortar, but if the mortar or concrete gets any significant cracks in it, it will crack through the coating. On the other hand, the system is very easy to patch if it does crack. We also make a wall grade version of our crack isolation membrane Epoxy.com Product #32 – www.epoxy.com/32.htm – which can reduce the potential for small cracks (which are the most common).
  3. A clean substrate is required for maximum effectiveness – www.epoxy.com/surfaceprep.aspx. For technical support contact me at norm@epoxy.com or 352-533-2167

Installation of Epoxy Waterproofing on Block Walls

Once the wall is clean, you need to point-up (fill) any cracks, bad mortar joints, and larger holes that are in the block. Some people use conventional mortar and wait 28 days for it to cure as per the American Concrete Institute. This is a very inexpensive way to do it, but can be affective if done properly. A more effective way to insure the right results is the use of Product #2005 Epoxy Gel Adhesive – www.epoxy.com/2005.aspx. That insures that you have a tight bond over the cracked areas and have already produced a tight waterproof seal in that area. Also the #2005 Gel Epoxy is semi flexible and allows more movement before cracking that conventional grout. The #2005 allows your coating to be installed the day after the #2005 is applied.

Once the cracks and holes are repaired, much of your work is done. You simply apply 1 coat of Epoxy.com Product #899 – www.epoxy.com/899.aspx – Epoxy Primer and allow to dry overnight.

After the primer has cured overnight you can apply the optional crack isolation membrane Product #32W – Wall Grade, or proceed to the coating below. If you do apply the crack isolation membrane 2 coats of the membrane are best. One advantage of the two coats of membrane is that typically you can reduce the number of coats of top coating that is required to seal the block. As you put on the membrane be sure to check to see that the holes in the block are being filled as you go.

Depending on the porosity of your concrete and if you used the crack isolation membrane above you will want to apply 2-4 coats of 1W epoxy wall coating. As you put on each coat check to see that the holes in the block wall are being filled.

Summary of Waterproofing Basement Walls with Epoxy

In conclusion: Leaking basements are a major problem to many structures in the spring. The easiest time to repair them is during the winter when there is little or no leakage. Epoxy.com epoxy coating systems can affectively and economically solve most basement leaking problems. The final product is a hard attractive ceramic like finish that does not require additional painting or other finishes over it.

Next Issue: Waterproofing Poured Wall foundations with Epoxy.

Additional Information on Epoxy Coatings

Product #1W (Wall Grade)  Epoxy Wall Coating – a general purpose epoxy wall coating

Product #2W (Wall Grade) Cemical Resistant Epoxy Wall Coating 

Product #32 (Wall Grade) Flexible Epoxy Membrane

Where to Start when installing epoxy.


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